Within the Yoga Sutras Book II, the Sadhana Pada, The Ashtanga Eight Fold Path is outlined, which is the essence of the Path of Raja Yoga, the path of meditative absorption. Much of what we consider modern styles of yoga is considered to be Raja Yoga.
The Niyamas are principles of inner self-improvement, observations, and self-adjustments that allow us to become the best versions of ourselves. The first Niyama is Sauca, which means purity and cleanliness in thoughts, words, and actions. This relates to the ability to clear and cleanse the mind of thoughts that do not serve you. As a yoga teacher, it is very important to have purity in intention, because if it is not you will most likely carry that energy into your classes with you and your students will pick up on it. As a teacher it is important to be able to cleanse and purify yourself of thoughts, words, actions, and habits continually in order to attain an elevated consciousness and strive towards love and balance.
The second Niyama is Santosha, which is the inner peace of contentment. Santosha is such a beautiful lesson because it teaches us to find satisfaction in where we are in the present moment and accepting it fully as it is. Santosha is an excellent practice for modern yogis to accept things as they are, not as you want them to be. Santosha teaches us that we are exactly where we need to be. One of the most valuable aspects is to not seek outside ourselves for happiness, but that happiness exists within us, here and now.
The third Niyama is Tapas, which can be interpreted as self-discipline. Tapas literally means “heat” or “to burn” and can be thought of as the fire of cleansing and purification. Tapas can teach us to remain strong in our true center while being drawn from outside sources. As example of discipline or tapas is fasting. Although it is uncomfortable and you are hungry and in pain, it helps to burn toxins and cleanse ourselves. In doing this practice it refines and purifies us, keeping us sharp and discerning.
The fourth Niyama is Svadhyaya, which is self-study and devotion to personal development. Svadhyaya is practiced through the study of sacred texts, repetition of mantra, self-inquiry, and self-study in all aspects of life. The continuous focus on self-improvement and learning is so important as a yogi so that you may always stay humble and realize that the journey of learning and growth is never over.
The fifth Niyama is Isvara Pranidhana, which means dedication to the divine. The translation from Sanskrit means “fully surrendering your commitment and worship to God.” God can also be understood as Universal Spirit or expression of Universal Love. This wisdom is so powerful in the study of yoga, for cultivating and understanding your own personal relationship to spirituality. In surrendering to pure universal awareness we learn to see the divine love within us, embody it, and share that love outwards with anyone we encounter. The last three Niyamas: discipline, self-study, and dedication to the divine are considered to make up Kriya Yoga, or yogic action. They are also called the “Three Wise Men.” These three Niyamas provide a solid foundation to build a yoga practice and life of consciousness and awareness. Patañjali writes that in practicing these three Niyamas, it is a path of action towards realizing freedom and liberation.
In diving into the study of the Niyamas within the Yoga Sutras, I have come to many realizations about why these ancient texts continue to be so relevant in modern times. They contain deep wisdom that as yogis, we seek to live and embody. The devotion to purity, self-study, discipline, personal growth and development, contentment, and spiritual devotion, all help us to become the truest version of ourselves. In devoting ourselves to these practices we may embody our highest self and universal love.